This is management tools adopted by every organization to collect, analyze, understand and interpret data or information by all the related employees. The preparation of quality management models requires an extensive brainstorming to do proper planning. Collecting all the relevant information’s of the concern project/ production will help in framing a flawless Quality Management Model. Customer feedbacks and Customer expectations need to be carefully monitored and evaluated periodically to deliver an excellent quality product. This tool helps the concerned authority to distinguish the common problems which are happening frequently with their root cause. Quality Management tool does a significant job in improving the quality of production and service.
- Affinity diagrams
Employees are gathered together for a brainstorming section. And asked them to suggest and note valuable ideas to reach a goal or to solve a problem. Instruct the employees to place the ideas on a clipboard and divide according to main categories. As an example, when we divide the main deliverables of the Work Breakdown Structure into low levels of work until we reach the level of work packages
- Process decision program charts (PDPC)
It plays an intermediate role between the objective and the steps to achieve this objective. By using a tree of 5 levels i.e.
- Level 1 – Objective,
- Level 2 – Main component of the system,
- Level 3 – Tasks of each component,
- Level 4 – Problems occurs while we do the Level 3 tasks
- Level 5 – Actions that can we take to avoid each problem at the fourth level,
- After that, we can choose the suitable actions depending on its cost and time
- Interrelationship Diagram
Up to 50 relative causes and effects of a problem in the system can be linked to each other in an interrelationship diagram. In this diagram each item is represented as a node and the relation in each item is represented as an arrow from the input node (Cause) to the output node (Effect). Count the number of inputs and outputs of this node. The node with the largest number of outputs is considered as the main factor that causes the problem and avoiding this will helps to solve the problem.
- Tree Diagrams
It shows the relation between the two nodes (the parent and the child). Used to decompose the risks into a breakdown structure. It can also be used in decision trees.
- Prioritization Matrices
This matrix is used to identify that which is the most important decision, choice, problem, to work on. and give it a value according to the priority. The criteria can be time, cost, frequency, feasibility or any other. Later provide a rank according to this rank, we will reach to the most important problem which has the largest total score.
- Activity Network Diagrams
This tool is used for scheduling activities of a project by linking activities to each other. It can show the critical path for the flow of the project. It can show the predecessor and successor of any activity so we can rearrange the activity network according to the need
This tool has two forms:
- Activity on Node (AON) and
- Activity on Arrow (AOA).